Attitudinal effects of mere exposure zajonc 1968 pdf
into the attitudinal effects of mere exposure (2ajonc, 1968) report the surprising finding that exploratory behavior and favorable attitudes appear to be negatively related (Harrison, 1968). The mere exposure effect (MEE) was first identified by Zajonc (1968:1) who observed that, “the mere repeated exposure of the individual to a stimulus is a sufficient condition for the enhancement of his attitude towards it. Individual and group risk-taking in a two-choice situation Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. By "mere" exposure is meant a condition making the stimulus accessible to the individual's perception. However, my guess is that almost all mere exposure experiments, per se, are about MEE- tokens, at least as I would define them. To assess implicit memory, we exploited the mere exposure effect (e.g., Zajonc, 19681), which refers to the increase in liking of melodies as a result of a prior exposure.
The hypothesis is offered that mere repeated exposure of the individual to a stimulus object enhances his attitude toward it. Bornstein’s  meta-analysis of these experiments found that repeated exposure effects are robust. Exposure effects Investigating the inﬂuence of exposure on affective and evaluative responses has been a principal method of affective dynamics research. Zajonc, "The Attitudinal Effects of Mere Exposure," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Monograph Supplement, Vol. The effects of similarity on perceived familiarity were almost entirely mediated by changes in attraction. The Mere Exposure Effect In the 1960’s Zajonc began investigating a memory phenomenon in which people demonstrate a preference for previously encountered items compared to new, unfamiliar items (Zajonc, 1968). Robert Zajonc first published his findings about the mere exposure effect in 1968.
investigated most extensively by Zajonc (1968), who named the phenomenon, the mere exposure e+ect is measured by above-chance a+ective preference for previously exposed stimuli. In the 2nd phase participants rated ideographs that were primed either positively, negatively, or not at all. The effects of mere exposure are quite automatic and independent of what we pay attention to in our day-to-day activities. The empiricalsupport is an application of the developments in Zajonc’s (1968) mere exposure effect andFestinger’s (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance. This pattern of observations, framed as the exposure-attitude hypothesis and later the mere exposure effect, proposes that indirect experience, and even more so, direct experience with objects and stimuli reduces instinctive fear reactions to novel stimuli (Bornstein, 1989, Zajonc, 1968).
Since Zajonc (1968), many empirical studies have noted the “mere exposure effect,” or the phenomenon that exposure to an object enhances its positive evaluation (see Bornstein, 1989, for review). Paper presented at the Symposium on Comparative Social Behavior, Smithsonian Institute, May 1969. In the case of mere exposure, the repeated exposure of a stimulus (Tylenol), in the absence of any other stimuli (i.e., only the name is repeated), can evoke an affective response (Bornstein 1989; Zajonc 1968).
This is the idea that we are attracted to, and help, those who share more of our genes, therefore those who are more similar (Hamilton,1968). In a fascinating extension of the name letter effect, Pelham,Mirenberg,andJones(2002)foundthatinitials had predictive value for individuals’ career choices.
These patterns suggest that subliminal mere exposure effects for targets are moderated by similarity to self and stimulus. By "mere " exposure is meant a condition making the stimulus accessible to the individual's perception. ence condition and the mere presence condi-tion, but only in the audience condition did they have the status of spectators. Repeated exposure to a stimulus, for example, has been shown under certain condi-tions to lead to changes in expressed attitude toward the focal object. models of prior exposure effects developed in other domains to the persuasion context. CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Attitudinal effects of mere exposure.
effects on interest but not on political trust.
The Mere Exposure Effect (69), adds more to these theories, simply arguing that the more an individual is exposed to a stimulus, the more favorable they perceive it. tasks, modalities, and stimuli (e.g., the classic mere-exposure effect; Zajonc, 1968). Merely perceiving a stimulus repeatedly, such as a brand on a billboard one passes every day or a song that is played on the radio frequently, renders it more positive. Zajonc, ‘Attitudinal Effects of Mere Exposure’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Monograph Supplement 9 (1968), 1 – 27. The unconscious and conscious processes of interpersonal cognition are discussed. Several studies have shown that repeated exposure to a message containing a brand logo, viewed at a low attention level, leads to better ratings of the brand (Grimes & Kitchen, 2007). However, the "mere exposure" hypothesis cannot give an overall-explanation of observed frequency-affect relationships, neither can alternative hypotheses presented subsequently.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9(2), 1-27… Investigating the effect of familiarity on liking, a series of experiments was conducted which supported the theory that mere repeated exposure of an individual to a stimulus object enhances his att itude toward it. They accrue simply as the result of being a member of a culture, experiencing cultural artifacts (see Zajonc, 1970). by "mere" exposure is meant a condition making the stimulus accessible to perception. While the mere exposure theory (Zajonc, 1968) would predict a general increase of liking in increasing exposure, RET revealed dissociate effects depending on innovativeness. able for exposure effects in cognitive judgments but not in affec-tive judgments.
The mere exposure effect, identified by Zajonc, showed that familiarity breeds liking. Zajonc’s  influential paper on the subject prompted a large number of experiments on the attitudinal effects of mere repeated exposure to a stimulus. Methods Participants Seventy-four undergraduate approached in the main library of The Ohio State University volunteered to participate in this study.
Cummins and Lau (2003) stated that interactions with individuals with ID generally tend to promote anti-bias towards them, which is the basis of efforts for attitudinal change. The mere exposure effect is the finding that repeated exposure to a stimulus causes increased liking of that stimulus (Zajonc, 1968). ATTITUDINAL EFFECTS OF MERE EXPOSURE Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Mere Exposure Effect Additional experiments showed that the effect is very robust and r The mere exposure effect is a psychological phenomenon by which people tend to develop a preference for things or people that are more familiar to them than others. In social psychology, this effect is sometimes called the familiarity principle.The effect has been demonstrated with many kinds of thing, including words, Chinese characters, paintings, pictures of faces, geometric figures, and sounds. Mere exposure has been most famously stud-ied by Robert Zajonc and, since his initial studies, has been found to be a tremendously robust effect—one that has been demonstrated in a huge array of different con-texts. Zajonc conducted four experiments, each of which provided overwhelming to strong support for the hypothesis that mere repeated exposure of The mere exposure effect is well established at this point. Moreover, mere-exposure effects can also have an influence on the perception of the stimulus, independent of the other paths described.
Put simply, the more familiar a person is with a given stimulus, the more they are reported to like it. This effect, well-established in experimental psychology (Bornstein, 1989), is the phenomenon that any sort of stimulus is preferred when it is repeatedly presented (Zajonc, 1968). The “Mere Exposure Effect” theory holds that “repeated exposure to something is sufficient to change an individual’s attitude towards it” (Zajonc, 2001). The latter finding suggests that repeated exposure effects are a function of both situational and individual factors. For example, Zajonc (1971, 1997) proposed that repeated exposure may enhance preference via habituation of the ori-enting response. Thus, to test if processing ﬂuency enhances liking, it is useful to turn to manipulations other than mere exposure. Zajonc’ s mere exposure hypothesis that positive affect increases with repeated unrein-forced exposure (Zajonc, 1968), and thus familiarity, of a stimulus.
EXPLANATIONS OF THE MERE EXPOSURE EFFECT Affective Models Several models have been proposed to explain the mere exposure effect. Implicit learning of new faces in prosopagnosia: An application of the mere exposure paradigm. Studies on what has come to be known as the 'mere-exposure effect' or the familiarity principle have demonstrated a strong relationship between frequency of exposure and likeability. Zajonc (1968, 2001) goes further to argue that the mere exposure effect not only transcends conscious experience but that in fact the positive effect of repetition on liking is an extremely important biological fact supported by numerous experiments on humans and animals alike. This paper presents evidence of ballot order effects in Irish General Elections, where candidates are listed in alphabetical order. The mere exposure effect has been documented as a robust a reliable phenomenon (Bornstein, 1989) and refers to the observation that repeated, unreinforced exposure to a stimulus increases affective evaluations of that stimulus (Zajonc, 1968). The stimuli in the research, however, were words, Chinese characters, or pictures which might differ from cognitive processing of messages. It is generally believed that attention enhances the processing of sensory information during perception and learning [1–3].
This bell-shaped attitudinal curve is the most commonly seen pattern in studies of repeated exposures to persuasive message. According to Zajonc (1968), frequent exposure to stimuli renters these stimuli more attractive in the eyes of the perceiver. Therefore, when sports fans are not exposed to women’s sports, they comprehend the lack of exposure as if they should not care about women’s sports (10, 15, 17). ducted by Zajonc (1968) and others (e.g., Brendl et al., 2005), which support a linear relation between familiarity and pleasure, employed stimuli that elicited no pre-existing attitudes (such as letters, ﬁrst names, faces, and symbols). Accordingly, the mere exposure effect is inextricably linked to the psychology of marketing on Facebook and elsewhere. The mere exposure effect is a foundational theory of social psychology, and is applied in advertising, studies of decision-making, and explanations of human interaction (Zajonc, 1968).
Petty & Cacioppo (1986) - Presented P’s with one of 2 messages arguing for establishing a new college course required for graduating Seniors (one strong one weak). Preferences for an item or person can be formed by “mere exposure.” This means that simply after repeated observation, we tend to experience a feeling of preference for repeated information , .Furthermore, Kunst-Wilson and Zajonc showed that people tend to prefer stimuli to which they have been repeatedly exposed subliminally. The mere exposure effect In 1968 Zajonc reported a set of experiments in which the mere repeated exposure of ‘Chinese-like’ symbols was found to reliably predict their rated ‘goodness of meaning’. Affect deriving from 2 independent sources—repeated exposure and affective priming—was induced, and the combined effects were examined. cutting exposure may be more consequential for attitudes and behavior than mere frequency of exposure. Contrary to previous theories of mere exposure effects, fluency (Winkielman et al., 2003) and lower apprehension (Harrison, 1977; Zajonc, 1968) did not account for the effect of exposure on liking (nor the effects on extremity or intensity). Interestingly, mere exposure does not require conscious awareness of the object of an attitude. Data relating to elections from 1977 to 2011 suggest the effect is significant in a statistical sense and in magnitude.